Invasive species are non-indigenous plants, animals, or diseases that can cause harm when introduced to a new environment. Non-indigenous species are also called non-native, alien, exotic, or introduced species.
Invasive species in ballast water
Marine invasive species are often transported between coastal areas by ships in ballast water. Ballast water is sea water that is taken on to help stabilize the vessel during ocean voyages. This water can contain sediments that that contain larvae of marine species. Prior to loading cargo, the tankers discharge the ballast water used during the voyage.
Invasive species attached to ships’ hulls
Invasives can also travel to new environments by attaching to a ship’s hull, sea chest, anchor, propeller, or most any location immersed in water. This is referred to as “fouling.”
The risk for Prince William Sound
Invasive species that become established in the coastal waters of Prince William Sound may pose a serious environmental and economic threat. They can out-compete native species, disrupt food webs, or alter habitat.
Prince William Sound is a critical habitat for many subsistence and commercially harvested species such as salmon, crab, scallops, herring, walleye, pollock, cod, rockfish, sablefish, squid, and clams. It is the home to orca and humpback whales, Steller sea lions, Dall’s and harbor porpoises, sea otters, and a host of other animals that depend on Prince William Sound’s rich resources.
In addition to commercial fishing, this area’s economy relies on sport fishing and tourism, which may also be impacted by arrival of these species.
Coastal areas in other many other places, such as the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay, have already been severely altered by invasive species introduced by ships. In Prince William Sound, crude oil tankers are a likely vector for transporting these species due to large volumes of ballast water that come from distant ports.
Council efforts to combat marine invasive species
Invasive species have been a priority issue for the council since 1996. Our work includes:
- Coordinating a citizen science effort to monitor for European green crab and other invasives.
- The Council leads a multi-stakeholder working group to coordinate programs in our region.
- The Council is represented on the Western Regional Panel of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force and on the National Invasive Species Advisory Committee.
- In partnership with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, NOAA’s Sea Grant program, Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., and the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the council has co-sponsored a series of scientific studies conducted by the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center since 1997.
- Alaska Department of Fish and Game: Invasive Species in Alaska
- Bering Sea Marine Invasives Project
- California Non-native Estuarine and Marine Organisms
- Environmental Protection Agency – Vessel General Permit
- Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) Global Ballast Water Management Programme
- MIT Sea Grant Center for Coastal Resources
- National Ballast Information Clearinghouse
- National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System
- National Invasive Species Information Center
- NOAA Fisheries Service – “What are Aquatic Invasive Species?”
- Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission: Aquatic Invasive Species Network
- Portland State University Center for Lakes and Reservoirs
- Public Library of Science (PLoS) Biology
- “Radio Expeditions” coproduction of NPR and National Geographic Society, episode on NIS and the Green Crab
- Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) – Marine Invasions Research Lab
- U.S. Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force
- U.S. Coast Guard Ballast Water Management Program
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Invasive Species Program
- U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Species
- U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Graphs and Charts
- Washington Invasive Species Council
- Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species
- World Register of Introduced Marine Species
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