The 2009 report ?Characterizing Risk Associated with Vessel Fouling and Nonindigenous Species in Prince William Sound? reviewed 2005-2008 vessel arrival data for ports in Prince William Sound and the Ports of Kodiak and Seward, conducted an initial assessment of tankers traveling to Prince William Sound by evaluating maintenance schedules and periodicity and location of hull cleaning, summarized the literature on hull fouling studies and hull sampling techniques. Based on the results, the authors recommended sampling and analysis protocols that could be used in studies of hull fouling in the region.?
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